Doctors have known about the need for a diabetes mellitus diet for a long time - this is a medical diet in the pre-insulin era which is the only effective mechanism to overcome the problem. Diet is very important for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, where the chances of coma with decompensation and even death are high. For diabetics with the second type of disease, nutritional therapy is usually prescribed for weight correction and stable disease progression.
- The basic concept of a therapeutic diet for any type of diabetes is a so-called unit of bread - a theoretical measure equivalent to ten grams of carbohydrates. Modern nutritionists have created a special set of tables for all types of products, showing the amount of XE per 100 grams of product. Every day, diabetics are recommended to take products with a total "value" of 12-24 XE - the dose is chosen individually, depending on the weight, age and level of physical activity of the patient.
- Keep a detailed food diary. All foods eaten must be recorded so that, if necessary, the nutritionist makes corrections to the nutritional system.
- Number of movements. Diabetics are recommended to eat 5-6 times. At the same time, breakfast, lunch and dinner should contribute 75 percent of the daily ration, the remaining 2-3 snacks - the remaining 25 percent.
- Individualization of nutritional therapy. Modern science recommends specializing in the classical diet, adapting it to the patient's physiological preferences, regional factors (a set of dishes and local traditions) and other parameters, while maintaining the balance of all components of a balanced diet.
- Equivalence of substitution. If you change your diet, then the alternative products chosen must be interchangeable in terms of calorie content, as well as the ratio of protein, fat, carbohydrates. The main component groups in this case include products containing carbohydrates (1), proteins (2), fats (3) and various components (4). Replacement can only be done in this group. If replacement occurs at (4), then the nutritionist makes adjustments to the overall composition of the diet, while replacing the elements from (1), it is necessary to consider similarities in terms of glycemic index - this can be helped by the XE table described above.
Foods are strictly forbidden to have diabetes
Modern dietetics, complemented by sophisticated diagnostic methods and research on the effects of nutrients and products on the body, in recent years have significantly narrowed the list of foods that are strictly prohibited for diabetics. Currently, dishes based on refined carbohydrates, sweets and refined sugars, as well as products that contain fireproof fats and high cholesterol are completely contraindicated.
There are restrictions relative to white bread, rice and semolina porridge, as well as pasta - they can be used strictly. In addition, regardless of the type of diabetes, alcohol is completely contraindicated.
In some cases, strict adherence to a diet for type 2 diabetes helps to balance carbohydrate metabolism completely and not use medication. For diabetics with type 1 diabetes and other types, nutritional therapy is considered and is an important element in complex problem therapy.
Types of Diabetes Diet
- Classic.This type of dietary therapy was developed in the 30-40s of the twentieth century and is a balanced, albeit strict, diet. Its well-known representative in the domestic diet diet is "Table number 9" with many variations later. This type of therapeutic diet is suitable for almost all diabetics with type 1 and 2 diabetes.
- Modern. The principle of individualization and the peculiarity of the mentality of individual social groups has given rise to a variety of modern menus and diets, with less strict restrictions on certain types of products and by considering the new properties found in the latter, making it possible to introduce previously prohibited products in daily meals. The main principle here is the factor of consumption of "protected" carbohydrates that contain a sufficient amount of dietary fiber. However, it should be understood that this type of medical diet is strictly chosen individually and should not be considered a universal mechanism for balancing carbohydrate metabolism.
- Low carb diet.Designed especially for patients with type 2 diabetes with weight gain. Its main principle is to exclude as much as possible the consumption of foods high in carbohydrates, but not harmful to health. However, this is contraindicated for children; it should also not be used for people with kidney problems (later stage nephropathy) and for diabetics with type 1 diabetes and severe hypoglycemia.
- Vegetarian diet.Experimental studies in the early 20th century showed that a vegan diet with an emphasis on reducing the intake of fat-rich foods not only contributes to weight loss, but also lowers blood sugar. A large number of whole plants, rich in fiber and dietary fiber, in some cases turn out to be more effective than the recommended specific diets, especially since vegetarian diets show a significant decrease in the total caloric content of the daily diet. This in turn reduces the risk of metabolic syndrome in pre-diabetic conditions, able to act as an independent prophylactic agent and effectively fight the onset of diabetes.
Below, we look at the classic diet menu for type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients, which is optimal for patients with mild to moderate diabetes mellitus. In case of decompensation, hypertension and severe hypoglycemia, individual diet regimens should be developed by a nutritionist taking into account human physiology, current health problems and other factors.
- Protein - 85-90 grams (sixty percent animal origin).
- Fat - 75-80 grams (one third of vegetable base).
- Carbohydrates - 250-300 grams.
- Free liquid - about one and a half liters.
- Salt - 11 grams.
Food system - fractions, five to six times a day, maximum energy value per day - no more than 2400 kcal.
Meat / culinary fats, spicy sauces, sweet juices, pastries, rich broths, creams, pickles and marinades, fatty meats and fish, preserves, salted and saturated cheeses, pasta, semolina, rice, sugar, jam, alcohol, icecream and sweets based on sugar, grapes, all raisins and bananas with dates / figs.
Allowed Foods / Meals:
- Flour products - rye bread and bran, as well as flavored flour products are not allowed.
- Soups - optimal for medical nutrition are borscht, cabbage soup, vegetable soup, and even stews in low-fat broth. Sometimes okroshka.
- Meat. Types of beef, beef, low-fat pork. Chicken, rabbit, lamb, tongue and boiled liver are allowed. From fish - any type of low-fat boiled, steamed or grilled without vegetable oil.
- Dairy products. Low-fat cheese, fermented dairy products without added sugar. Limited - 10% sour cream, low-fat or semi-fat cottage cheese. Eat eggs without egg yolks, as a last resort, in the form of omelets.
- Bijirin. Oatmeal, pearl barley, beans, buckwheat, yachka, millet.
- Vegetables. Recommended carrots, beets, cabbage, pumpkin, zucchini, eggplant, cucumber and tomato. Potatoes are limited.
- Snacks and sauces. Salad of fresh vegetables, tomato sauce and low-fat, carrot, mustard and pepper. Limited - pumpkin or other vegetable caviar, vinaigrette, fish jelly, seafood dishes with a minimum of vegetable oil, low-fat beef jelly.
- Fats - vegetables, butter and ghee are limited.
- Various. Sugar-free drinks (tea, coffee, rosehip broth, vegetable juice), jellies, mousses, fresh non-exotic sweet and sour fruits, compote. Very limited - honey and sweets with sweeteners.
The weekly menu is indicative of diabetes mellitus
Individual components from the menu below can be replaced according to the equivalent replacement principle in the group above.
- We will have breakfast with two hundred grams of low-fat cottage cheese, where you can add some berries.
- The second time we had breakfast with one glass of kefir one percent.
- We had lunch with 150 grams of roast beef, a plate of vegetable soup. For garnish - boiled vegetables in the amount of 100-150 grams.
- Have an afternoon snack with fresh cabbage and cucumber salad, seasoned with a teaspoon of olive oil. Total volume 100-150 grams.
- We had dinner with roasted vegetables (80 grams) and one medium grilled fish weighing up to two hundred grams.
- We will have breakfast with a plate of buckwheat porridge - no more than 120 grams.
- The second time we had breakfast with two medium sized apples.
- We had lunch with a plate of borscht vegetables, 100 grams of boiled beef. You can drink food with compote without added sugar.
- Have a good afternoon tea with a glass of rosehip broth.
- We had dinner with a bowl of fresh vegetable salad in the amount of 160-180 grams, as well as one boiled lean fish (150-200 grams).
- We had breakfast with cottage cheese casserole - 200 grams.
- Before lunch, you can drink a glass of rosehip broth.
- Lunch with a bowl of cabbage soup, two small fish cakes and a hundred grams of vegetable salad.
- Have an afternoon snack with a boiled egg.
- We had dinner with a plate of boiled cabbage and two medium-sized meatballs, cooked in the oven or steamed.
- We will have breakfast with two omelets.
- Before lunch, you can eat a cup of lean or sugar-free yogurt.
- We ate cabbage soup and two units of peppers stuffed based on lean meats and whole grains.
- Have an afternoon snack with two hundred grams of low-fat cottage cheese and carrot casserole.
- We had dinner with boiled chicken (two hundred grams slices) and a plate of vegetable salad.
- We will have breakfast with a plate of millet porridge and an apple.
- Before lunch, eat two medium-sized oranges.
- Lunch with meat curry (no more than a hundred grams), a plate of fish soup and a plate of barley.
- Lunch with a plate of fresh vegetable salad.
- We had dinner with a large number of boiled vegetables with lamb, with a total weight of up to 250 grams.
- We will have breakfast with a plate of porridge based on bran, you can eat a pear with a little bite.
- Allowed to eat a boiled egg before dinner.
- We ate a large plate of vegetable stew with the addition of lean meat - only 250 grams.
- Get a snack with some allowed fruit.
- We had dinner with one hundred grams of boiled lamb and a plate of vegetable salad in the amount of 150 grams.
- We will have breakfast with a bowl of low-fat cottage cheese with a handful of berries - just up to a hundred grams.
- For breakfast - two hundred grams of grilled chicken.
- We had lunch with a plate of vegetable soup, a hundred grams of goulash and a bowl of vegetable salad.
- Have an afternoon snack with a plate of berry salad - up to 150 grams in total.
- We had dinner with one hundred grams of boiled beans and two hundred grams of steamed shrimp.
Questions and Answers
Is it possible to eat diabetes mellitus: beans, beets, rice, persimmon, pomegranate and pumpkin?
Rice is not allowed. Nuts (walnuts, peanuts, almonds, pine nuts) - possible, but in limited quantities (up to 50 grams per day), previously peeled from the shell and other elements. You can use beets for diabetes in boiled form, using it, for example, as a component of vinaigrette - no more than 100 grams a day.
Persimmons are products with a high glycemic index, but contain large amounts of nutrients and at the same time do not significantly affect sugar levels, as they contain mainly fructose. You can use it, but in very limited amounts, no more than one every few days.
Pumpkin is on the green list for diabetes and can be eaten without special restrictions (the only threshold is the overall caloric content of the menu). Pomegranate can be eaten by type 2 diabetes, not more than 50 grams / day.
Is it possible to use honey for diabetes?
Until the 90s of the twentieth century, nutritionists associated honey with a type of food that was strictly forbidden for all types of diabetes. Recent studies show that in patients with type 2 diabetes, a small amount of honey (5-7 grams per day) does not cause an increase in blood sugar levels due to the presence of large amounts of fructose in honey. Therefore, it is edible, but in limited quantities.
How much fruit can you eat for this disease?
Eat in moderation, carefully choosing fruits for your diet - so, grapes are completely contraindicated for you, while apples, oranges or persimmons can be included in the diet, naturally, in limited quantities - no morefrom 1-2 pieces a day.
Is there a low-carb diet for type 2 diabetes?
Low water diet only for diabetics with type 2 diabetes who have problems with being overweight. The basic instructions are to reduce carbohydrate intake and reduce the total daily energy value of the diet. Alternatively, modern nutritionists often offer vegetarian diets - in some cases, they are more effective than classic therapeutic diet foods usually recommended by doctors.
Do I need to follow a diet?
It is important to support carbohydrate metabolism compensation. A 6-fold meal plan with a maximum daily energy of 2400 kcal for adults is the best option to use anywhere.
Do you need a strict diet for diabetes?
Modern science has expanded the dietary limits allowed for diabetes, allowing patients to diversify their daily diet. The overall severity of the diet consists of calculating the amount of carbohydrates consumed, as well as the total calorie content and frequency of eating, while the individual components of the diet should be replaced equally in its group.
The child was born with diabetes. How to feed him?
It is not clear what type of diabetes we are talking about. If your child has temporary neonatal diabetes, then it can be cured and, as a rule, you can get rid of it forever. If we talk about permanent neonatal diabetes, then throughout life the baby needs the appointment of insulin and, thus, lifelong therapy. Both of these diseases are relatively rare and are genetic disorders, sometimes leading to type 1 diabetes in the future.
Do you mean type 2 diabetes acquired in childhood? In any case, your child needs a physiologically balanced diet in all aspects, meeting the energy needs of the growing organism. The diet of children with diabetes is not systematically different from the diet of a healthy baby at the same age with the same physical development parameters - only harmful foods based on refined carbohydrates, sweets and sugars, as well as foods containing flammable fats and manycholesterol, prohibited. There are relative restrictions on white bread, rice and semolina porridge, as well as pasta - it can be used strictly.
Naturally, we are not talking about the most serious forms of disease at the decompensation stage. However, to develop an individual diet for a child, you need to contact a nutritionist who will take into account your child's type of diabetes, his or her body characteristics, and other factors.