Inflammation of the pancreas, or pancreatitis, is a total catastrophe for the entire digestive tract.
The pancreas produces hormones (insulin, glucacagon, lipocaine), enzymes needed for normal digestion and digestion of proteins, fats and carbohydrates, and bicarbonate ions that neutralize acid secretion in the stomach.
Pancreatitis is divided into acute and chronic, but in any case, adherence to diet for the disease is necessary.
General principles of diet
The dietary task in pancreatitis is the mechanical, chemical and thermal avoidance of the gastrointestinal tract. That is, by observing the medical schedule for inflammation of the pancreas, normal function can be achieved, protection of the stomach and intestines from aggressive food products, decreased gallbladder activation and prevention of liver disease.
The treatment schedule for pancreatitis according to Pevzner classification is table number 5p. Table 5p is quite different from table number 5, which is prescribed for liver disease, but also has a number of similar dietary restrictions.
Diet for pancreatitis should be nutritious, containing increased amounts of protein, but reduced amounts of fats and carbohydrates (especially sugar) to prevent the liver from degenerating into fatty hepatosis and the development of diabetes mellitus.
Daily amount of essential nutrients in the diet table for pancreatitis:
- protein: 100 - 120 gr. (where 65% are animals);
- fat: 80 - 100 gr. (of which 15 - 20% are vegetables);
- carbohydrates: 300 - 350 gr. (no more than 30 - 40 grams of sugar. )
- table salt 6 - 10 gr. (food should not be inhaled);
- free liquid 1. 5 - 2 liters.
Dietary energy value is 2500 - 2600 kcal.
General principles of diet for pancreatitis
Mechanical food processing
In acute pancreatitis or chronic form worsening, all foods should be refined, boiled or steamed, which ensures maximum stomach production.
Food should not be served neither hot nor cold. The optimum food temperature is 20-50 ° C.
A sense of proportion
With pancreatitis, it is very important to follow the measurements with food. Overeating is not allowed, as this not only increases the load on the pancreas, but also on the entire digestive tract as a whole.
Number of foods
Food intake during the day must be fractional, up to 5-6 times a day. You can not try to satisfy your hunger with most of the food at once, you must follow the principle: "a little better, but often. " This will facilitate the work of the pancreas, food is better absorbed, and the pain after eating will practically disappear.
Stop bad habits
Alcohol consumption is dangerous not only by the development of alcoholism, but in alcoholic beverages in pancreatitis provokes the formation of "accumulation" proteins - plaques on the pancreatic ducts, clogging them, disrupting the outflow of glandular secretions into the duodenum, worsening inflammatory processes in organs and provoking to increasedigestion.
On the other hand, nicotine inhibits the production of the enzyme that detoxifies acetaldehyde (this substance is formed during the breakdown of alcohol in the body, it causes inflammation of the pancreas).
With pancreatitis, you should reject foods that stimulate the production of gastric juice, and, therefore, pancreatic secretion. That is, the production of pancreatic enzymes far exceeds their need for the digestive tract as a whole, and therefore, in pancreatitis, more enzymes are expended for the digestion of the pancreas itself.
To reduce the amount of enzymes synthesized and relieve inflammation of the organs, it is necessary to leave a number of products:
- Sup.Soups cooked with meat, mushrooms and fish broth, complexes (cabbage soup, borscht, pickle soup), milk, cold (okroshka, beet soup) are prohibited.
- Bread.Fresh wheat or rye, pastry and pastry products puffs, tortillas, fried pies.
- Meat.Fatty meats (pork, lamb) and poultry (ducks, geese), sausages, liver, kidneys and brains, smoked meats and canned foods.
- Fish.Fatty fish, salty and smoked foods, fried, canned food.
- Dairy products and lactic acid.From lactic acid products, you should avoid products that have a high percentage of fatty cheeses - sour cream, fatty, salty and spicy.
- Bijirin.Prohibition of pearl barley, millet, corn and wheat cereals, as they are in the stomach and intestines for a long time, stimulates the production of pancreatic juice.
- Eggs.Fry and boil hard.
- Vegetables. Cabbage, eggplant, radish, radish, radish, garlic and spinach, peppers.
- Candy.Chocolate, raw fruits and unprocessed raw fruits (dates, grapes, figs, bananas), ice cream, jam.
- Spices.Black and red pepper, coriander, carrot, hot tomato sauce, vinegar and more.
- Drinks.Coffee, cocoa, thick tea, sweet carbonated drinks, grape juice.
- Fat.All fireproof fats (pork, beef, lamb), tail fat, bear fat and others.
Foods recommended for pancreatitis necessarily facilitate the work of the pancreas, reduce the amount of enzymes it synthesizes, quickly get out of the stomach and small intestine, and do not cause bloating, which provokes pre-existing abdominal pain.
In addition, to facilitate the synthesis of enzymes in the pancreas that contain protein, food should be digested and rich in protein.
List of Allowed Products:
- Bread.White or yesterday white bread, dry biscuits without sugar, crackers.
- Sup.Soup should be vegetarian, with purified vegetables (carrots, pumpkin, zucchini, potatoes), noodles, semolina or oatmeal.
- Meat.Low-fat varieties (beef without film and tendons, young beef), white chicken, turkey, rabbit. The meat must be boiled and preferably cleaned (soufflé, steamed pieces, dumplings), beef stroganoff.
- Fish.Low fat varieties (cod, pollock, carp) boiled or chopped, aspic.
- Bijirin.Buckwheat (pureed), oatmeal, semolina, rice porridge in water with 50/50 milk, pudding and casserole with cereal, cottage cheese.
- Fermented milk and dairy products.Low fat milk, non-acidic and low fat cottage cheese, yogurt, kefir, curdled milk no more than 2% fat cheese, salt-free and low-fat.
- Eggs.Omelet, steamed from white, 1 yellow once a week.
- Vegetables.Potatoes, carrots, zucchini, beets, cauliflower, pumpkin, green beans.
- Candy.It is better to replace sugar with xylitol; from fruits and berries, use only ripe and non-acidic varieties, make mousses, jellies, puddings, compote (all in mashed form), roasted apples from them.
- Spices and sauces.Squeeze or sauce in diluted vegetable broth, when flour is added, it is not sautéed.
- Fat.Butter (no more than 30 grams a day), refined vegetable oil (10 - 15 grams), add oil to the finished dish.
- Drinks.Lightly brewed tea with lemon, mineral water, rosehip stew, juice, half diluted with water.
Diet for acute pancreatitis
In the first days of the disease, when the pain syndrome is expressed, it is necessary to adhere to the principle: "hungry, cold and calm. "physical and emotional.
Allowed to drink non-carbonated alkaline water up to 1. 5 - 2 liters per day. From 3 to 4 days, slimy stew, unsweetened tea and rosehip stew, melted porridge, stew are introduced into the menu. For 5 - 6 days, protein omelet, grated buckwheat or wheat flour, some crackers, boiled vegetables, food up to 6 times a day in small portions is allowed.
Gradually, puddings, mousses, casseroles, liquid juices are introduced into the menu. With the reduction of the acute period, they switched to treatment schedule No. 5 p.
Diet in pancreatitis aims to maximize the relaxation of the pancreas, reduce the inflammatory process in the glands, stop painful attacks and prevent the development of possible complications.
In addition, diet normalizes the production of digestive enzymes, inhibits the "eating" of the pancreas by itself, maintains the integrity of the intestinal mucosa, restricts the uptake of toxic substances into the body, and normalizes the function of the gastrointestinal tract as a whole.
Consequences of not following a diet
If not adhering to a diet in acute pancreatitis or worsening of chronic pancreatitis, the following complications occur:
- jaundice (due to disrupted bile outflow);
- bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract (stomach ulcers, esophageal varicose veins, Mallory-Weiss syndrome);
- portal hepatic hypertension;
- portal or splenic vein thrombosis;
- damage to the duodenum (obstruction);
- malignant tumor of the pancreas;
- diabetes mellitus;
- brain damage (encephalopathy).